|Repubblica di San Marino|
|Form of government||republic|
|Time zone||CET (UTC + 1)|
|Telephone area code||00378 (Source: ALLCITYCODES)|
The Republic of San Marino is located in the east of the Apennine Peninsula and is one of the smallest countries in the world with an area of 61 km² (north-south extension 12 km). The country is an enclave within the Italian territory.
San Marino is located on the eastern slope of the Etruscan Appenine at about the height of the Italian city of Rimini. The center of the country is occupied by the limestone massif of Monte Titano with its three peaks, the highest of which reaches around 740 m. To the northeast, the massif drops steeply to a plain, in the south there is a hilly landscape.
The capital of the same name is located on Monte Titano.
San Marino has a Mediterranean climate. The average July temperatures are around 23 °C, the winters are short, due to the high altitude, the average temperatures in January are just below freezing. The average annual rainfall is 750 mm, the rainiest month is November, the summers are relatively dry.
Flora and fauna
Typical Mediterranean vegetation with holm oak, maple, elm, pine and olive trees can be found on the mountain slopes of Monte Titano. Macchia grows in the cleared areas. Laurel, lavender and myrtle bushes are also characteristic.
Deer and weasels live in the forests, otherwise there are mainly animal species such as foxes, rabbits, hedgehogs and martens that live near human settlements (culture followers). The bird life is rich in species, in addition to songbirds such as nightingale, goldfinch and oriole there are also falcons that breed in the niches of the mountain slopes.
Around 29,000 people live in San Marino, with an average population density of 475 people per square kilometer. The country’s two largest cities are Serravalle in the north (9,500 residents) and San Marino (almost 5,000 residents). Over 13,000 San Marines live abroad.
In the state itself, San Marines make up over three quarters of the population; about 22% are Italians. The official language is Italian, Romagnol is spoken as a vernacular, a regional dialect. Over 95% of the population belong to the Roman Catholic Church.
The standard of living in the small republic is high, social and health services are well developed. The average life expectancy is given as 82 years, which is even higher than the European average. According to COUNTRYAAH, the population growth is 1.3%. School attendance is compulsory for children between the ages of seven and 15; 96% of the population can read and write.
The basis for the political system of the Republic of San Marino is the constitution from 1599 (revised several times until today). Legislative power is held by the “Great and General Council” (Consiglio Grande e Generale), whose 60 members are directly elected by the people for a term of five years. Each year, the Council elects two of its members to the so-called governing captains (Capitani reggenti), each of whom is in office for six months. A re-election to the captain is possible after three years at the earliest (this corresponds to six terms of office). The captains exercise the executive together with the State Council (which consists of ten members elected by the Grand Council). This “Council of 12”
San Marino is divided into nine municipalities (Castelli).
San Marino is one of the wealthiest countries in the world. Tourism accounts for a quarter of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP); more than two million people visit the small republic every year. In addition to the tourist attractions (historic fortifications), the country is considered a shopping paradise due to the low taxes. 10% of government revenue comes from the sale of stamps and collector coins. Other important economic sectors are the small industry (textile, electronics and ceramics) and the service sector (banks). Agriculture plays an extremely minor role and only accounts for 0.1% of GDP. Important products are wine, olives, wheat and cheese. Food has to be imported.
The economy of San Marino is closely linked to that of Italy, and a customs and currency union has existed since the 19th century. Almost all imports (including food, beverages and energy) come from Italy.
San Marino is connected to the nearest Italian city of Rimini by an expressway. The road network covers a total of 220 km.
The currency is the euro.