Ajari | en, Ajarian Autonomous Republic, Republic of Georgia, in the southwest of the Transcaucasus, borders on Turkey in the south, 2,900 km 2, (2016) 337,000 residents; The capital, most important industrial center and most important Georgian port is Batumi. Adjara includes the southwestern capping of the Lesser Caucasus (Meschetisches Mountains) and the coastal plain on the Black Sea, which goes north into the lowlands of the Colchis transforms. Adjara is located in the humid subtropics (2,400–2,800 mm annual precipitation, 14 ° C). About half of the territory is covered by forests (beech, oak, yew). The majority of the population, who mainly settle in the coastal strip, is made up of Georgians (including the Sunni-Muslim Adjars), there are also minorities of Russians and Armenians. About 64% of the population belong to the Georgian Orthodox Church, 30% are Muslims. Tea, tobacco, citrus fruits, fruit and wine are grown on the coast, and cattle ranching and forestry in the mountains. The most important industrial sectors are the food and luxury goods (processing of agricultural products) and the petrochemical industry (oil refinery in Batumi), the port economy is important. Black Sea health resorts are Batumi,
History: The area of Adjara belonged to the 6th to 4th centuries BC. To the west Georgian empire of Colchis, then to Iberia and was part of the Lasen empire (“Lasika”) from the 4th to 6th centuries AD. In the 6th century Adjara became the scene of the fighting between Byzantium and Persia, in the 7th century the Arabs invaded and in the 9th century it belonged to the southwest Georgian territorial kingdom of Tao-Klardschetien, meanwhile devastated by the Seljuks (11th century) and Mongols (13th century). Century). Occupied by the Turks in the 16th century, Adjara remained fought over between Georgia and the Ottoman Empire until the 17th century. The Muslim Mission in the 17th and 18th centuries The 19th century was successful due to the assurance of tax advantages and the granting of noble privileges as well as real estate when converting Georgian nobles. After the Russo-Turkish War (1877/78), the Ottoman Empire had to pass Adjara with its now predominantly Muslim population Cede (Ajars) to Russia; part of this population emigrated to Turkey. After the October Revolution, Adjara belonged to the Republic of Georgia (under a Menshevik government), but was occupied by Turkish and then British troops in 1918 (until 1920). On July 16, 1921, the Ajarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was founded within Georgia. Meshes settled in Adjara until they were deported to Central Asia (Uzbekistan) in 1944 under Stalin.
The anti-Islamic-authoritarian politics under S. Gamsachurdia (Georgian parliamentary or state president 1990-92) led to mass demonstrations in Batumi in April 1991 and intensified the demands for the extension of the autonomous rights of Ajaria (since 1991 officially the Ajarian Autonomous Republic).
Aslan Abashidze (* 1938), autocratically ruling in Adjara from 1991 to 2004 (after elections in 1998 as president), was able to maintain the internal autonomy of the republic under Georgian President E. Shevardnadze, but came into conflict after his successor M. Saakashvili came to power the Georgian central government and had to resign after mass protests in May 2004 (went into exile in Moscow after Russian mediation). The regional elections in Adjara, which was again subject to greater control of Georgia, won the supporters of Saakashvili on June 20, 2004 (electoral alliance »Victorious Adjara« with 28 out of 30 seats); Head of government was Levan Warschalomidze (* 1973) who continued to lead the government after the November 2008 elections. His cabinet primarily set financial and economic policy accents. In 2012 there was a change of power. The »Georgian Dream« opposition alliance won 13 of the 21 seats in the regional elections. On October 30, 2012, the regional parliament elected Archil Khabadze (* 1981) as the new head of government. In July 2016, Zurab Pataradze (* 1973) became his successor.
Ossetian literature, first developed through a rich folklore (nartend poetry, fairy tales, legends, songs). With the increasing orientation towards Russia, an Ossetian written language (based on Cyrillic) was created in the middle of the 19th century. In 1865 Temyrbolat Mamsurow (* 1843, † 1899) wrote the first poems in the Ossetian language. Ossetian literature experienced its first high point with Kosta Chetägkaty (Chetagurow; * 1859, † 1906), whose collection of poems “Ossetian Lyra” (1899) became a classic work of Ossetian literature; to this day some of her poems are passed on as folk songs. At the beginning of the 20th century, epic and dramatic works were also created. Chetägkatys Successors became literary advocates of national and social liberation. After the October Revolution, writers’ associations were formed and anthologies were published. The 1930s were characterized by great epic works, diverse poetry and the further development of drama. In addition, the historical novel developed. Even after the Second World War, literary works of epic breadth appeared. After the end of the Soviet Union, the Russian-writing Ossetian-Russian prose author Alan Tschertschesow (* 1962) with historical novels (“Requiem for a Living”, 1995, German; “A Wreath for the Grave of the Wind”, 2000, German) is in Russia became particularly well known. Visit cellphoneexplorer for Georgian Literature.
Abkhazian literature, literature of the regions in today’s northwestern Georgia, which is fed by a rich folklore with heroic-epic myths, historical heroic songs as well as lyrical songs and wisdom. Dyrmit Gulia (* 1874, † 1960), who published a first volume of poetry in 1912 and a first short story in 1919,is considered the founder of Abkhazian literature. His works represent the beginning of the Abkhazian writing culture, which dealt with the spread of a notation system for the Abkhaz (Caucasian languages) gradually trained at the beginning of the 20th century. After the establishment of Soviet power in Abkhazia (1921), the first theater groups were founded, followed by the establishment of a theater in 1928 and the first Abkhazian drama, written in 1929 by Samson Tschanba (* 1886, † 1937). Novellas and novels by Ioan Papaskiri (* 1902, † 1980) and Michail Lakrba (* 1901, † 1965) also had an impact on Abkhazian literature. During the Second World War, more and more lyrical works were created. The post-war literature was v. a. by the folk poet of Abkhazia, Bagrat Schinkuba (* 1917, † 2004), shaped with poems, poems, short stories, verse novels and novels. In the German language were v. a. Novels and short stories by the Russian-writing author of Abkhazian origin, F. Iskander, translated.