Pakistani industry has been clearly directed to the processing of local agricultural products; however, some basic sectors have experienced a certain expansion, such as the iron and steel, chemical (production of nitrogen fertilizers, sulfuric acid, caustic soda, etc.), petrochemicals and mechanics, present with both assembly and repair industries (factories automotive, railway and aeronautical workshops, etc.). As already pointed out, the country’s most important industry is still cotton, which allows for good exports and feeds widespread craftsmanship. The Pakistani textile industries, whose products are essential for exports, have, on the other hand, been hit in recent years by competition from other emerging Asian countries. The food industry (sugar refineries, oil mills, canneries, mill complexes, breweries, etc.) flanked by various manufactures linked to local agricultural and livestock production: woolen, tobacconist, shoe factories, etc. Finally, we mention the cement factories (growing thanks to the increase in domestic and foreign demand), paper mills, soap factories, as well as the various craft activities, such as hand-weaving silk, the production of carpets, the artistic processing of ceramics, skins and leather etc. Overall, the secondary sector employs a fifth of the active population and contributes to a quarter of GDP; the country is at the top of the continental level for some productions: sugar, cigars and cigarettes, etc.
According to sunglasseswill, the variety of mineral resources is quite wide, even if generally present in modest quantities and whose exploitation is penalized by the lack of infrastructures; Chromite, salt, aragonite and marble, gypsum, uranium, barite, feldspar etc. are extracted. The energy sector, on the other hand, is better represented, especially as regards natural gas (the fields are located in Baluchistan and connected with gas pipelines in Karāchi, Faisalābād and Islāmābād), oil (the main extraction area is Baluchistan), hard coal and lignite, however insufficient for internal needs. An important source of electricity is water produced in large part by the Tarbela dam power plants, on the Indus. Finally, a small part of the energy produced comes from the nuclear power plant in operation near Karāchi. The energy sector, on the other hand, is better represented, especially as regards natural gas (the fields are located in Baluchistan and connected with gas pipelines in Karāchi, Faisalābād and Islāmābād), oil (the main extraction area is Baluchistan), hard coal and lignite, however insufficient for internal needs. An important source of electricity is that of water produced in large part by the power stations of the Tarbela dam, on the Indus. Finally, a small part of the energy produced comes from the nuclear power plant in operation near Karāchi.
Lahore [English lə h ɔ ː ], is the capital of the province of Punjab in Pakistan, on the left bank of the Ravi in Punjab, near the border with India, with (2017) 11.1 million residents, the second largest city of Pakistan.
Catholic bishopric; University (founded in 1882), TU (founded in 1961), administrative college, research institutes (including research center for nuclear fuels), libraries, Lahore Museum (with miniature collection) and others. Museums. Textile, leather, chemical, rubber, steel, metal processing and food industries; Gold and silversmiths; Transport hub, international airport.
Lahore is an old Muslim cultural metropolis, spaciously laid out, with an old town surrounded by a city wall. To the south is the fort begun under Akbar (UNESCO World Heritage Site) with audience halls, Shalimar Gardens (UNESCO World Heritage Site), palace buildings (including the later added mirror palace “Shish Mahal”, 1631) and a mosque. Opposite the Alamgiritor (1673) of the fort is the Badshahi mosque, built under Aurangseb in 1674, one of the largest mosques in the country. The mosque of the governor Khan Wasir, built from bricks and decorated with mosaics made of colored glazed tiles, reveals Persian influence. The Shalimar Gardens with watercourses, fountains and pavilions were built in 1641–42. The tomb of the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh (Ranjit Singh-Samadhi) was established in 1848. The University and the Lahore Museum (1894) are striking buildings from the British era. The 59 m high Minar-e Pakistan tower was built on the site where the Muslim League decided in 1940 to found an independent state. There are several Mughal mausoleums on the outskirts of the city, including the domed tomb of Jahangir (completed 1637) with four minarets. The fort and the Shalimar Gardens were on the “Red List of World Heritage” as particularly endangered sites from 2000–2012.
Lahore, whose name goes back to Loh (or Lava) according to Hindu tradition, the son of Ramas, the legendary hero of the artistic epic “Ramayana”, was founded at the end of the 1st / beginning of the 2nd century. Mentioned in Biruni’sdescription of India in the 11th century, Lahore came under the rule of the Ghasnavids in the same century, and in 1186 the Ghorids conquered it; both dynasties resided in the city. Lahore experienced its heyday – again temporarily residence – in the Mughal Empire, v. a. under Jahangir (buried in Lahore with his wife Nur Jahan) and Shah Jahan. Under Ranjit Singh (1799–1839) Lahore was the capital of the Sikh Empire, from 1849–1947 it was under British rule.