|Form of government||Constitutional inheritance monarchy|
|Telephone area code||00377 (Source: ALLCITYCODES)|
With an area of 1.95 km², the Principality of Monaco (officially: Principaut¨¦ de Monaco) on the French Mediterranean coast is the second smallest country in Europe after the Vatican. The country borders France in the west, north and east.Most of the country’s area is formed by a narrow coastal strip that rises steeply to the north-western hinterland.
The principality consists of four districts: Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Fontvielle and Monte Carlo. Monaco-Ville is located on one of the many steep rocky outcrops that are foothills of the French Maritime Alps (Alpes Maritimes). The old town, the princely castle and the oceanographic museum are located at a height of over 60 m. The port of the principality lies north of the old town in a sheltered bay in the La Condamine district. North of it lies Monte Carlo with the well-known casino and the congress center. The district of Fontvielle is located on a peninsula that was created in the 1960s due to embankments.
The climate is Mediterranean with mild winters and warm to hot summers. Average temperatures are around 10 °C in January and 24 °C in July. The Maritime Alps in the hinterland protect the state from the Mistral, a downwind typical of this Mediterranean region, coming from the north. The average rainfall is 750 mm.
Flora and fauna
There is virtually no original vegetation in the city-state of Monaco. Plants can only be found in landscaped gardens and parks. In the Jardin Exotique (Botanical Garden) you will find Mediterranean plants such as pine, pine, cedar, various palm trees, olive trees, cork oaks and laurel plants, an extraordinary collection of cacti and a variety of flowers such as hibiscus and passion flowers.
Except in the waters off the coast, there are only pets and adapted animals in Monaco. In the Oceanographic Institute rare marine animals such as deep sea fish are shown.
Monaco has around 32,400 residents and thus an extremely high population density with a national area of 1.95 km². Only around 19% of citizens are monegasques with the sought-after citizenship. According to COUNTRYAAH, the largest population group are French with 32%, while Italians make up around 20%. The rest of the population is made up of people of different origins. In the past three decades, the population has increased by over 50%, since Monaco is one of the so-called “tax havens”.
The official language in the city-state is French; English and Italian are common colloquial languages. The Monegasque dialect also used consists of Italian and Provencal elements. Around 90% of the population belong to the Roman Catholic Church.
The population is currently growing by an estimated 0.4% per year, which is mainly due to immigration from abroad. At almost 80 years, life expectancy is in the European average.
According to the 1962 constitution, the Principality of Monaco is a constitutional hereditary monarchy with limited sovereignty. There is an obligation to “coordinate” with France on important foreign policy issues. The prince as head of state (since 2005 Prince Albert II) appoints the Minister of State (since 2010 Michel Roger) as head of the government. The appointment of the Minister of State requires the approval of France. A crown council, of which a total of seven members, four are appointed by the prince and three are elected by the National Council for three years, advises the head of state on domestic issues.
The legislature lies with the prince and the National Council. Its 24 members are elected every five years. Every Monegasse receives the right to vote on his 18th birthday.
There are no actual administrative units in Monaco; the city has four quarters: Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monte Carlo and Monaco-Ville.
Although there are no separate economic statistics for the small state, whose economy is closely interwoven with that of France (Customs Union 1865, Monetary Union 1925), Monaco is certainly one of the richest countries in the world. At the beginning of the economic upswing was gambling, which in turn increased tourism. Today financial services are in the foreground. Since 1869, private individuals have no longer had to pay direct taxes (exemption for French citizens through a 1963 agreement), which makes the state (and the stable political situation) one of the “tax havens” for foreign investors. Economic growth in 2012 was 6.6%.
Agriculture practically does not exist in the city-state. Semi-finished goods and capital goods are mainly produced and exported, industrial and consumer goods, machines, vehicles, food and energy are imported.
Tourism is an important industry, with over five million foreign visitors coming to the country every year. Attractions include the convention center, the casino, the Formula I races and the Oceanographic Museum. Since Monaco has no airport, there is a helicopter connection to the airport in Nice.
Currency is the euro due to the monetary union with France.