CIVILIZATION OF THE INDA VALLEY, middle of the 3rd millennium – XVII-XVI centuries. BC
This civilization is also known as the Harappan culture, during this period trade relations developed, cities were built with a clear layout of streets, a sewage system appeared, art arose, and the foundation was laid for those religions that dominate India today. See Countryvv for labor market in India.
VEDIC-ARYAN PERIOD around the 15th century. BC e.- VI century. BC
It was during this period that society was divided into castes, the sacred Sanskrit texts of the Vedas were created – the four main sacred books of the ancient Indians: Rigaveda, Atharveda, Samaveda and Yajurveda. These books formed the basis of the concepts of karma, samsara and nirvana, which, in turn, became the foundation on which modern Buddhism and Hinduism are based.
HISTORY OF INDIA – THE PERIOD OF ALEXANDER THE MACEDONIAN 327-326 BC
Although in reality the troops of Alexander the Great did not go further than the eastern part of the modern state of Himachal Pradesh, the great commander left a significant mark on the culture of northwestern India. The Greek influence is especially strong in the sculpture of this period.
THE MAURYAN STATE circa 321-185. BC
Founded by Mauryan Chandragupta, this empire was the first great Indian empire and controlled the territory of modern central, eastern and western India. The empire reached its peak during the reign of Emperor Ashoka. He was a charismatic person who converted to Buddhism after the historic Battle of Kalinga (260 BC). His reign coincided with a period of economic stability and the flourishing of Buddhist science and art. A new political and social system was proposed, while the division of society into castes only intensified. The empire was so powerful that it found it possible to send its representatives to spread Buddhism in neighboring Sri Lanka and Nepal. Now we are told about the former greatness by the numerous architectural monuments that have survived from those times in Sanchi, Sarnat and Matura.
HISTORY OF INDIA – THE GUPT STATE IV-VI
The formation of the state began under Chandragupta the First in 321 AD. e. Although mainly Buddhist, the empire nevertheless spread Hinduism in the central part of the country. Being stable, the empire contributed to the emergence of a significant number of universities and monasteries. During this period, a great stage in the development of Indian art and architecture, known as classical, began.
CHOLA EMPIRE VIII-IX – XIII centuries
This empire of great builders and merchants spread Hinduism to other Asian countries. The empire controlled most of southern India and left its most prominent monuments at Kumbakonam and Thanjavur.
Rise of Islam around 700 CE
The raids of various conquerors from the northwest brought Islam to India – a new religion and culture that radically changed the country. The growing power of the Sultanate in Delhi, with the same growth in Gujarat and Bengal, allowed Islam to dominate the north of the country.
VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE XIV-XVI centuries
This empire controlled the entire south of India until the 16th century. Foreigners who visited the country in the XIV-XV centuries described it as a prosperous state. During the period of decline, in the second half of the 16th century, due to feudal strife, the capital of the empire, the city of Hampi, was the site of massacres and atrocities until the fall of the empire after the decisive battle with the Muslim coalition at Talikot in 1565.
HISTORY OF INDIA – MOGUL EMPIRE XVI-XVIII centuries
This empire was the largest power in medieval India. The six great Mughal emperors (from Babur to Aurangzeb) provided a golden age of art and military achievement. During the reigns of these emperors, the integration of Hinduism and Islam was maintained. This continued until religious intolerance and predatory taxes weakened their power. Fine examples of the architecture of this era are the perfectly preserved Taj Mahal mausoleum in Agra and the Red Fort in Delhi.
EUROPEAN COLONIZATION since the first half of the 16th century
Many European states tried to consolidate their influence in India, but only Portugal (she used Goa to monopolize trade in the Middle and Far East) and Britain (under the flag of the East India Trading Company she “ruled” the country for 250 years) managed to succeed in this hard way.
MODERN HISTORY OF INDIA – THE PERIOD OF INDEPENDENCE from 1947 to the present
Although the Republic of India, such is its full name, is the largest democratic state on the planet, the road to democracy has been hard and long. Despite the non-aggressive non-violent resistance movement led by Mahatma Gandhi, the separation of the colony and the mother country in 1947 was bloody. India itself was conditionally divided along religious lines when almost entirely Muslim states were founded, such as West Pakistan (Pakistan) and East Pakistan (Bangladesh). The victory in the struggle for independence caused a rapid growth in industry and population, as well as a large wave of migration from the countryside to the cities. Cultural and artistic traditions have been given the opportunity to develop widely through the implementation of many civic projects.