Finland State of Northern Europe ; the borders have a length that reaches 4400 km, of which about one third are coasts (in the S Gulf of Finland; in the W Gulf of Bothnia, both dependencies of the Baltic Sea), while two thirds are made up of land borders (with the Sweden, the Norway and Russia).
In the territory of Finland some of the most ancient rocks of the Earth emerge (Paleozoic and Pre-Paleozoic), which form an ancient relief demolished by exogenous agents already in ancient times and then covered by a powerful glacial mass. The basic archaic rocks are mainly granite, with a massive appearance, of a greyish color. Since there were no notable changes until the expansion of the Quaternary glaciers, and since the Finland always emerged from the sea, there is almost no trace of land of the middle ages. Numerous fractures, however, played an important role in determining the hydrographic pattern. The ancient rocks are mostly covered by the blanket of glacial materials, especially moraines, which have formed low elliptical hills. Connected with the glacial expansion is also the origin of the many lakes (over 55,000), which cover almost a tenth of the territory (especially in the lake platform between the 61st and 64th parallel). The orography is very uneventful and the whole southern part is low (below 200 m asl), flat, uniform, while to the North there is some higher elevation. The watershed between the Arctic Ocean and the Baltic Sea is formed by an elongated hump, 600-700 m above sea level. Connected to the phase of the retreat of the glaciers is also the deposition of a terminal moraine, which appears in the form of two cords, distant from each other 20 km and called Salpausselkä: the appearance is that of a moraine valley or ridge, 70-80 m high, formed by sands and pebbles. Furthermore, the deposition of innumerable bottom moraines, which assume the configuration of elongated cords (called harju ; a few meters wide, tens and sometimes hundreds of km long), mostly covered by trees and paths, often led to the formation of dry bumps between one lake and another or in marshy areas. The lakes have a very varied appearance, mostly very elongated in shape, with numerous islands and generally modest depths.
According to topschoolsintheusa, the coasts of the Finland are characterized (especially to the SW) by a large number of islets (approx. 75,000), which represent lands in the process of emergence; the largest of these islands has an extension of 640 km 2 and is located in the Åland group. The coasts are also subject to elevation and this has economic repercussions, as the ports have to be moved by creating outposts. The river systems, due to the glacial cover and the recent uplift, have youthful characteristics, with flat sections joined by strongly inclined sections (called koski), which often form rapids often exploited to obtain electricity; the main river is the Kemijoki (544 km).
The climate has Nordic characteristics. On the one hand, the country is at the edge of the Euro-Asian continental mass, on the other it is affected by the beneficial influences of the Gulf Stream. Big differences are noticed between the different seasons of the year, depending on the high latitude. The coldest month is January (−4 ° C in Åland; −10 ° C in the inland areas; −15 ° C in Lapland); in July, on the other hand, the averages are more uniform (15-16 ° C). As for rainfall, there are no significant differences: 2/3 of the country receive 500-600 mm, with maximum values in July and autumn. The characters of the forest mantle clearly differ in the territory according to the climatic conditions. Only the shores of the Gulf of Finland and Åland still have many broad-leaved trees; Lapland is the desolate kingdom of the tundra; the intermediate zone is the undisputed dominion of the coniferous trees, which form a boundless forest of pines and firs, interrupted only by lakes and oases of cultivation. Excluding lakes, about 72% of the land is covered by woods. The fauna of Finland has characteristics common to the fauna of northern Europe and zoogeographically belongs to the north-European-Siberian sub-region of the great Palearctic region.