The manufacturing industry is based on the principle of import substitution and is mainly limited to the production of consumer goods. Taking into account the high import component in raw materials and semi-finished products (about 60%), in the last two decades, the capacities of manufacturing enterprises have been used by 25-30%. These include car assembly, metallurgy, certain types of textile industry, the production of sugar, paper, plastics, etc.
The main mode of transport is automobile, providing 95% of passenger and freight transportation. In 2001, the Nigerian highway network reached 193.2 thousand km, incl. 59.9 thousand are paved roads, of which 1,194 km are expressways and 133.3 thousand km are dirt roads.
The total length of railways is 3557 km (2001). Of these, 3505 km are narrow-gauge railways (track width – 1067 mm) and only 52 km have a standard (1435 mm) gauge. Two main railway lines stretched from south to north: the Western one, connecting Lagos with Nguru, and the Eastern one – Port Harcourt with Maiduguri. The first highway has a branch connecting Zaria with Kano. In addition, in the center of the country, the highways are interconnected by a section of the track.
Nigeria has developed port systems, incl. the Delta port complex, including Warri, Coco and Sapele, Tin-Ken and Apapa ports in Lagos, as well as ports in Port Harcourt, Calabar, Onna. There are oil export ports in Bonny and Burutu. In 2002, the country’s merchant fleet had St. 43 vessels with a displacement of 1000 tons and above, incl. 6 foreign vessels flying the Nigerian flag as a “convenience”. The fleet consists of 29 oil tankers, one specialized tanker and four chemical tankers, 7 bulk carriers, one bulk carrier and a container ship. The length of river routes within the framework of inland water transport is 8575 km.
Pipeline transport is represented by oil pipelines with a length of 2042 km, oil product pipelines – 3000 km and gas pipelines – 500 km.
The country has five international airports: in Lagos (named after Murtala Muhammad), Abuja, Port Har Court, Kano and Calabar. In addition, the country has up to 14 airports for local transportation. There are several civil airlines operating in the country.
There are 83 medium-wave, 36 ultra-short-wave and 11 short-wave radio stations (2001), 3 television stations, incl. 2 stations and 15 repeaters under state control (2002), 23.5 million radios and 6.9 million televisions are in use (1997), there are 500 thousand telephone lines (2000), 200 thousand cellular subscribers (2001), 11 ISPs and 100,000 Internet users (2000).
There are more than 90 commercial, trade and industrial banks in Nigeria. In addition to them, there are numerous financial institutions. At the head of the banking system is the Central Bank of Nigeria, which is responsible for developing monetary policy and overseeing the banking system.
Public debt of Nigeria, according to the estimate at the beginning. 2003, amounted to 5.3 trillion naira (approx. 42.2 billion US dollars), incl. domestic debt 1.6 trillion (12.7 billion) and external debt 3.7 trillion naira ($29.5 billion). The civilian government advocates foreign debt relief from the world’s poorest countries, including Nigeria.
Nigerians assign one of the important places in the foreign economic sphere to the diversification of trade relations and the search for new partners, as well as foreign investors.
Science and culture of Nigeria
The Nigerian Academy of Sciences was established in 1977 – c. 100 full members. Scientific research is coordinated by the Ministry of Science and Technology. Along with special scientific centers (such as the Institute of Tropical Agriculture), there are research centers at universities, as well as at ministries and departments of the country.
According to searchforpublicschools, since 1982, the Nigerian education system has been built in accordance with the 6-3-3-4 formula. From the age of 6, children receive primary (compulsory since 1992) for six years, then three years of secondary and three years of higher secondary education. Along with higher secondary schools, there are 56 teachers’ colleges and 26 polytechnics. The four-year higher school is represented by 33 universities. The task of the complete eradication of illiteracy has been set. Education is mainly funded by the state.
Nigeria is a country of ancient culture: the terracotta sculpture of the “Nok culture”, the bronze of Benin and Ife, as well as other cultural monuments, widely represented in the museums of Lagos, Ife, Kano and other cities with a rich exposition, are widely known.
Nigeria is one of the literary centers of the African continent. Along with the traditions of oral folk art, English-language literature developed. Nigeria is the birthplace of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate, playwright and poet Wole Shoyinka. The names of such Nigerian writers as Chinua Achebe, Ciprian Ekvensi, Christopher Okigbo, Ken Saro-Wiwa and others are world famous.