The oldest settlement groups in the area were the so-called Chado-Hamites, represented by the Haussa and the Kotoko, the latter heirs of the ancient legendary population of the Sao, of which archaeological research has revealed interesting remains in the field of ceramics and in that of metallurgy. Subsequently, Chad was above all a transit place for long caravan routes, such as the Trans-Saharan, heading N towards Libya and Egypt, W and E towards Sudan. The goods transported were slaves, livestock, gold, ivory, weapons and textiles. Chad is an extremely composite country, both as regards ethnic groups and languages. This diversity is also manifested in the types of housing: most of the population, the Sudanese of the southern regions, lives in small villages devoting themselves mainly to the cultivation of millet or other cereals, and which is practiced in the savannah, where the soil is prepared with fires circumscribed. According to allunitconverters, the huts have a conical roof, made of straw, enclos including huts for the home, for the kitchen, for tools, for poultry, as well as the inevitable granary for cereals. In the Sahelian belt there are villages of enclosed huts near the crops; where, on the other hand, breeding prevails, temporary locations are set up with hemispherical tents of mats, more or less typical of almost all Saharan nomads. In the Sahara, settlements are limited to oases, with circular mud houses covered with thatched roofs and surrounded by small fields, planted with vegetables and cereals. The various ethnic groups also differ in terms of nutrition; in fact, there is no ‘shared culture’ of food. One dish, however, which is common throughout the country, is a kind of porridge reduced to grains, made from sorghum or millet flour, served with meat sauces, dried fish, tomatoes, onions and spices. In culinary traditions, the division between north and south is only apparent: in the south there is no fish in the diet, and less dairy products are consumed than grazing animals. On the other hand, the diet of the population living in the south is enriched with different varieties of forest products, with a good consumption of tubers, spices and fruit. The main products, besides sorghum and millet, are maize, cassava, potatoes, rice, sesame and some varieties of beans. the diet of the population living in the south is enriched with different varieties of forest products, with a good consumption of tubers, spices and fruit. The main products, besides sorghum and millet, are maize, cassava, potatoes, rice, sesame and some varieties of beans. the diet of the population living in the south is enriched with different varieties of forest products, with a good consumption of tubers, spices and fruit. The main products, besides sorghum and millet, are maize, cassava, potatoes, rice, sesame and some varieties of beans.
The modest schooling rate has facilitated the continuation of the oral tradition in local languages. This tradition is the subject of research and study by writers in French, such as Joseph Seïd Brahim (b.1927), who was inspired by it for his book of short stories Au Tchad sous les étoiles (1962), marks the start of literary production in French. Ethnological interest is also the basis of the works of Joseph and Marie-José Tubiana. 1962 also saw the success of the comedy La Dot, by Samuel Palou Bebnone, who is inspired by popular dramatic sources. While referring to folklore, Bebnone expresses progressive ideas in works ranging from social satire to historical drama. The cultural revolution of 1969 directed the creative energies towards the exaltation of national culture. The essay Le refus de l’école is placed in this perspective (1976) by Issa H. Khayar (who is also a dramatic author), dealing with the burning problem of a schooling in the French language rejected in the name of Islamic tradition. In the seventies and eighties, the literary activity of Moustapha Baba (1952-1982), a valid author of comedies of manners, short stories and a historical novel, and of M. Naindouba, writer of short stories, are noted. The works that appeared in the 1980s highlight the uneasiness and imbalances caused by Westernization and at the same time criticize the new African regimes and ancient traditions. The novel and short story are represented by A. Bangui-Rombaye, who also wrote the autobiography Prisonnier de Tombalbaye (1980), on the painful problem of freedom and human rights violated by African dictatorships. We also mention N. Ndjekery and Yves Siamard, both also theatrical authors. Other writers have preferred to deal with issues unrelated to the life of their own country, such as the poet GN Beng Djan (Il fleurit à Soweto, 1988) and the dramatic author M. Naindouba (L’étudiant de Soweto, 1980) who deprecate the racist regime of South Africa. Remarkable essays, inspired by recent political vicissitudes, with Tchad, guerre civil et désagrégation de l’État (1985) by G. Ngothe Gatta and Tchad, regards sur les élites Ouaddaïennes (1985) by Issa H. Khayar. Always inspired by the political events of the country the works of M. Hassan Abbakar and those of A. Kotoro. The new generation of writers, on the other hand, has partially freed themselves from this narrative cliché by trying their hand at genres such as novella, poetry and detective stories. Particularly in the 1990s, N. Bena Djangrang (b. 1959) emerged with Pierre, poussière (1990) and the collection of poems Passage àinfini (1999) and K. Lanko with Regards dans une larme (1990).