According to the constitution of December 7, 1996 (approved by referendum on November 28, 1996, revised version of March 6, 2016) Algeria is a presidential republic with a multi-party system. The Islam is the state religion. The head of state, commander in chief of the armed forces and defense minister is the president, who is directly elected for a period of 5 years. It has extensive powers, can dissolve parliament and has the right to declare a state of emergency. 1999-2019 A. Bouteflika held this office. After his resignation in April 2019, Abdelkader Bensalah (* 1941 ) named as interim president. The presidential election in December 2019 was the third attempt in 2019 to elect a new head of state. The former head of government Abdelmadjid Tebboune (* 1945) was elected president.
According to loverists, the legislature is supported by the bicameral parliament, consisting of the National Assembly, whose 462 members are elected for a legislative term of five years, and the Council of the Nation, whose 144 members (two-thirds elected by the local councils and one-third appointed by the president) each 6 Officiate for years. The government chaired by the Prime Minister (since 2019 Abdelaziz Djerad, * 1954 ) is responsible to parliament.
Algeria is a member of the African Union and the Arab League. The country has intensive relations with the European Union, the USA, Russia and China. Algeria is particularly interested in the expansion of trade relations and the fight against international terrorism. Islamist organizations are strongly represented in Algeria and repeatedly carry out terrorist attacks.
The constitution establishes a multi-party system. The most influential parties include Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN; founded 1954; former unity party), Rassemblement National Démocratique (RND; founded 1997; social democratic), the Islamist Mouvement de la Société pour la Paix (MSP; founded 1990), Rassemblement de l ‘Espoir de l’Algérie (TAJ; founded 2012; MSP split), the Islamist alliance Ennahda – Adala – BINA (formed for the 2017 parliamentary elections), Front des Forces Socialistes (FFS; founded 1963; Berber Party), Front El Moustakbal (FM; founded in 2012, national civil); Mouvement Populaire Algérien (MPA; founded in 2003 as Union pour la Démocratie et la République [UDR], reorganized in 2012; social democratic), Parti des Travailleurs (PT; founded in 1990; Trotskyist) and Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Démocratie (RCD; founded 1989; secular collection movement). theFront Islamique du Salut (FIS; founded in 1989) has been banned since 1992.
The trade union umbrella organization is the Union Générale des Travailleurs Algériens (UGTA); there is also the Confédération des Syndicats Autonomes (CSA) and the Syndicat National Autonome des Personnels de l’Administration Publique (SNAPAP).
The total strength of the conscription army is 130,000 men. The period of service is 18 months in the army, in the air force and the navy only volunteers serve. The army has two armored divisions, two mechanized divisions, four motorized infantry brigades and numerous independent battalions of all branches with a total of 110,000 men. The air force has 14,000 and the navy 6,000 soldiers. Paramilitary forces (mainly gendarmerie, national security forces and municipal self-defense militias): 20,000 men.
Algeria is divided into 48 districts (Wilajate) with limited self-government, each headed by a prefect (Wali) subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. The districts have their own parliaments (35–45 members, elected for 4 years).
The law created during the French colonial period expired on July 5, 1975 after a transition period, but still influences the newly passed laws that have taken up the basic ideas of traditional Islamic law. At the head of the judicial organization is the Supreme Court; since 1985 there have been three special courts for white-collar crime and a court for state security. – In 1982 the death penalty was introduced.
The lifting of the state of emergency in 2011 reduced government pressure, and private broadcasters have also been allowed since 2012. Nevertheless, only very limited reports on security-relevant topics are allowed.
Press: With around 45 daily newspapers (print and online editions), the print media cover a wide range of topics and opinions in the three languages Arabic, French and Tamazight. The independent Arabic-language newspapers »El Khabar«, »Echorouk« and »El Massa« are among the daily newspapers with the highest circulation. Important French-language newspapers are “El Watan”, “Liberté”, “Le Soir d’Algérie” (each independent) and “El Moudjahid” (state).
Broadcasting: The public service “L’Etablissement Nationale de Télévision” (ENTV) operates five stations in the three national languages. In 2013, the first private national television stations were approved with “Echorouk TV” and “Ennahar TV” (both in Arabic). The public service »Radio Algérienne« includes 48 regional stations, three national programs (Arabic, French, Tamazight) and four special interest channels.