According to topschoolsintheusa.com, Turkey is a state in Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia. In the northwest it borders on Bulgaria and Greece, in the northeast – on Georgia and Armenia, in the east – on Iran, in the south – on Iraq and Syria. In the north it is washed by the Black Sea, in the northwest – by the Sea of Marmara, in the south – by the Mediterranean Sea, in the west – by the Aegean Sea. The area of the country is 779452 km2. The Asian part of Turkey is called Anatolia, while the European part is only about 3% of the territory. The country can be conditionally divided into seven physical and geographical regions: Thrace and the coast of the Sea of Marmara; the region of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas; Black Sea region; western Anatolia; Anatolian plateau; eastern highlands; southeastern Anatolia.
Thrace and the coast of the Sea of Marmara is a flat region, in the east of which a mountain range rises with Mount Ulu (Olympus) (2543 m). The coast of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas is narrow and hilly. The Anatolian coast of the Black Sea is framed by the Pontus Mountains. Western Anatolia consists of jagged mountain ranges and river valleys that separate the Aegean coast from the Anatolian Plateau, the country’s largest region, surrounded on all sides by mountains. The highest point of this region is Mount Ersies (3916 m). The Eastern Highlands is the most mountainous region of Turkey. It contains the famous Mount Ararat (5137 m), to which, according to legend, Noah’s Ark landed. The Tigris (Dicle) and Euphrates (Firat) rivers also originate there. Southeastern Anatolia is a low plateau surrounded by mountains from the north, east and west. Almost all the rivers of Turkey are rapids and non-navigable, some dry up in summer. The longest river in the country is the Kizil-Irmak (1150 km). The two largest lakes in Turkey – Lake Van and Lake Tuz – are salty; freshwater lakes Beyzegir, Egridir and Burdural are located in the south-west of the country.
The first civilization on the territory of Anatolia was the civilization of the Hittites, which existed from 1900 to 1200 BC. It fell during the conquest of Asia Minor and Syria by “marine tribes” in the 12th century BC. The Phrygians (one of the tribes) formed a kingdom that existed in Anatolia for two centuries. At the same time, several Greek colonies arose on the Aegean coast. In the 7th century BC. the state of the Cimmerians was formed, and a hundred years later – the kingdom of the Lydians. From the middle of the VI century BC. to 333 BC most of Asia Minor belonged to the Persian Empire. In 333, it became part of the empire of Alexander the Great, and by the 2nd century BC. came under the rule of Rome. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. Istanbul (at that time Constantinople) became the capital of the Byzantine Empire for almost 1000 years, however, Anatolia at the same time was under the rule of Islamic dynasties. In the XIV century, the rise of the Ottoman Empire began, which in 1453 subjugated Constantinople. Modern Turkey became the center of a powerful empire that ruled the region for over 400 years. Before the First World War, the Ottoman Empire occupied the territory of modern Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, the islands of the Aegean Sea and Turkey. After the defeat in the war, where Turkey fought on the side of Germany, the empire lost most of its possessions. In 1918, the country was occupied by the Greek army and in the same year the Turkish War of Independence began. On October 23, 1923, the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed.
On the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, summers are long and hot, while winters are mild and rainy. The average January temperature in Istanbul ranges from 3 gr. From to 8 gr. C, the average temperature in July is from 18 gr. From to 28 gr. C. The average annual rainfall is about 820 mm, it rains mainly from October to May. Olives, citrus fruits, figs, grapes are grown in this region. Forests are extremely rare. The Anatolian Plateau has a continental climate with hot summers and relatively cold winters. The average January temperature in Ankara – from -4 gr. From to 4 gr. C, the average July temperature is from 15 gr. From to 30 gr. C. The average annual rainfall is about 350 mm. The vegetation on the plateau is mostly herbaceous with very sparse forests. The hottest region of the country is southeastern Anatolia (the average July temperature often exceeds 30 degrees C). Ox, fox, wild cat, hyena, jackal, deer, bear, marten and mountain goat are found in remote mountainous regions. Camel, buffalo and angora goat are domesticated. In addition to a large number of different species of local birds, several tens of thousands of migratory birds fly through Turkey. There are a lot of trout in the rivers.
The main attraction of Turkey is Troy – the legendary city, the battle for which was sung by Homer in the Iliad. At the place indicated by the great Greek poet, more than ten settlements of different periods were found, starting from 3000 BC. The last city from which the streets survived, the temple of Athena, the theater, existed from the 1st century BC. to 500 AD In addition, in Ankara there is a museum of Anatolian civilizations with the richest collections of household items and art of the Hittites and Phrygians; an old town located around a medieval citadel. In Trabzon – the Church of the Golden-domed Mother of God and the Church of St. Eugene of Byzantine architecture, both churches converted into mosques; church of st. Sophia (XIII century), in which the museum is located; monastery of the 14th century. Istanbul has a large number of architectural monuments, including the Church of St. Sophia of the 6th century (in the 15th century it was rebuilt as a mosque, now the building houses a museum); Bayazed II Mosque, Suleiman I Mosque; Topkali Seral palace complex, which houses a museum with a collection of Sultan’s jewelry, as well as items that belonged to the Prophet Muhammad; Dolma Baggen Palace (XIX century); Edikul Castle; Galata tower. In Gaziantep – the ruins of a Byzantine fortress; not far from the city, a hill, on which was the center of worship of the god Baal. In Antakya (Antioch) – the remains of Roman temples, aqueducts, theaters and catacombs; archaeological museum with a collection of mosaics of the II-III centuries; grotto of st. Peter, in which the apostle read his sermons, the crusaders built churches not far from the grotto in the 12th and 13th centuries. In Adana, a large stone bridge built in the 6th century; castle ruins from 782. In Kayseri – excavation of the ancient city of the Hittites Kanesh (III millennium BC). In Konya – magnificent gardens; several mosques and a monastery of the “Mevlana” sect (shaking dervishes); in the monastery is the tomb of the founder of the sect, the poet Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Din ar-Rumi. Bursa has several mosques in Byzantine, Persian and Islamic styles; hot sulfur springs; tombs of the first Ottoman sultans.