|Population growth rate
||9.20 births per 1,000 residents
|Overall life expectancy
|Men life expectancy
|Women life expectancy
|65 years and above
||0.97 M / F
||98.97 residents per km²
|Madrid 3141991, Barcelona 1604555,
València 786189, Sevilla 693878, Zaragoza (Saragossa) 664953, Málaga
569130, Murcia 439889, Palma de Mallorca 400578, Las Palmas de Gran
Canaria 379766, Bilbao 345141, Alacant (Alicante) 328648, Córdoba
327362, Valladolid 303905, Vigo 294098, Gijón 274290, L'Hospitalet de
Llobregat 252171, Vitoria-Gasteiz 243918, A Coruña 243870, Granada
235800, Elx (Elche) 227312, Oviedo 221870, Cartagena 21630654, Badalona
|Spaniards; Ceuta: 83,517; Melilla: 81,323 pop .;
Proportion of foreigners 2015: 9.6%
|Catholics (Roman Catholic) 94%, other 6%
|Human Development Index (HDI)
People in Spain
The residents of Spain are the Spaniards.
Culturally and therefore also linguistically, they do
not form a unit. As a result, problems have repeatedly
arisen in the past. Catalans and Basques in particular
feel more a part of their region than Spain. You can
find more about this under History. Around 700,000
Roma, who are called Gitanos here, live as a minority in
A total of around 46 million people live in Spain.
The population grew mainly between 1990 and 2010. That
was not because the Spaniards had more children, but
because many people from other countries moved here.
Especially from Romania, the Maghreb countries, Latin
America, Great Britain and Germany, people have moved to
Spain in recent years.
The average age of the population is 43.9 years. In
Germany it is 47.4 years. Life expectancy is 79 years
for men and 85.2 years for women.
Children: Every woman in Spain has an average
of 1.5 children. With us, every woman has an average of
1.4 children. So a little more children are born in
Spain than here.
Urban and rural areas: A large part of Spain's
population, namely 80.8 percent, lives in cities.
Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia are the biggest cities.
3.2 million people live in Madrid, 1.6 million in
Barcelona and 790,000 in Valencia. This is followed by
Seville, Saragossa and Málaga.
Languages in Spain
Spanish is spoken all over Spain. Spanish is the
official language. Instead of "Spanish" one would have
to say Castilian correctly. The Spaniards call their
language castellano (pronounced: kasteljano). It becomes
clear that "Spanish" is not the only language in the
country, as one would otherwise easily think. In
addition, Castilian is spoken not only in Spain but also
in almost all countries in Central and South America. 74
percent of Spaniards speak Castilian as their first
There are historical reasons why Castilian became so
widespread. The kings of Castile promoted this language
as early as the 13th century. Castile became the most
powerful kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula. You see: the
name Castilian is derived from the region of Castile.
With the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula (
Reconquista ), Castilian also spread.
And even in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, the
ruling kings always promoted Castilian. It was ordered
by law that school lessons could only be held in
Castilian. Under the Franco dictatorship, it was
forbidden to use languages other than Castilian in
schools, in the media and on street signs.
Strong languages: Catalan, Basque and Galician
However, other languages were spoken regionally and
thus survived. After the end of the Franco dictatorship,
Catalan, Basque and Galician became the second official
language in their respective regions and thus equated
Catalan is spoken in Catalonia, Valencia and the
Balearic Islands. Today, 17 percent of the population
speak Catalan as their first language. Galician is
spoken in Galicia (7 percent of the population). Basque
is spoken in the Basque Country and parts of Navarre (2
percent) and outside of Spain in the adjacent part of
the French Pyrenees.
Basque does not belong to any language family, it is
the only "isolated language" in Europe. All of these
regions are bilingual, with most of the residents
speaking Castilian and the regional language.
Basque has many k, z and x in its language. It does
not belong to the Indo-European languages like most of
the languages of Europe and therefore not to the
Romance languages that are spoken all around
(Castilian, French, Catalan, etc.). Do you want to learn
to count in Basque? From 1 to 10 it goes like this: bat,
bi, hiru, lau bost, sei, zazpi, zortzi, bederatzi, hamar.
Z is pronounced like the s in "sum". There is no x in
the numbers, it would be pronounced like "sch" in
Minorities in some places in the Pyrenees also speak
Aragonese. Aranese is still spoken in the extreme
north-west corner of Catalonia, in the Val d'Aran. That
is also in the Pyrenees.
The area that is green in the map above (next to the
yellow area for Galician) is spoken in Asturleon. It is
divided into Asturian and Leonese. In the cities in
particular, Castilian is now often spoken as a first
Arabic elements in Spanish
Because Spain was almost entirely in Moorish hands
from the 8th to the 11th centuries, Arabic elements have
established themselves in the language. The word ojalá,
for example, translates as "hopefully", but originally
"so Allah / God willing". The words that begin with al-
are also mostly of Arabic origin, for example alfombra
Another peculiarity in Castilian is the use of the
exclamation mark and the question mark. Both characters
are in front of the sentence the other way around, for
example: ¡Hola! That means hello and is pronounced
"Olla". ¿Cómo estás? means "how are you?"
A special letter is the ñ. It is pronounced "nj" and
occurs, for example, in España, which is Spain's name
in Castilian. If two l come together, it is pronounced "lj",
for example in the word castellano.
Religions in Spain
69 percent of Spaniards belong to the Roman Catholic
Church. The proportion of those who actively participate
in church life has been falling for years. Religious
minorities are Jews, Muslims, Protestants and Jehovah's
Witnesses. In addition, there are also
non-denominational people, i.e. people who do not belong
to any religion.