|Population growth rate
||10.10 births per 1,000 population
|65 years and above
||0.84 M / F
||27.17 residents per km²
|(F 2016) Tallinn (Reval) 423,420, Tartu (Dorpat)
93,687, Narva 58,204, Pärnu (Pernau) 39,828, Kohtla-Järve 35,928,
Viljandi 17,860, Rakvere 15,747, Maardu 15,128, Sillamäe 13,686,
Kuressaare 12,449, Võru 12.430
|70% Estonians, 25% Russians, 2% Ukrainians, 1% Belarusians, 0.6% Finns - proportion of foreigners in 2015: 14.6%
|Lutherans, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox,
Baptists, Methodists, Seventh-Day Adventists, Catholics (Roman
Catholic), Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jews
|Human Development Index (HDI)
People in Estonia
1.3 million people live in Estonia. Around a third of
them live in the capital Tallinn. The second largest
city is Tartu with 92,000 residents. A total of 68
percent of Estonians live in a city.
Estonians make up 69 percent of the population in
Estonia. The proportion of Russians in the country is
very high, namely 25 percent, i.e. a quarter of all
residents. It's similar to Latvia. Smaller minorities
are Ukrainians (2 percent), Belarusians (1.1 percent)
and Finns (0.8 percent). There are also around 500
Estonian Swedes living on Estonia's west coast. These
are descendants of Swedes who settled here in the Middle
The Russians who moved there during the time of the
Soviet Union did not receive a passport with
independence in 1991 and were thus stateless. You can be
naturalized, but you have to pass a language test in
Few people in Estonia still belong to a church. 16
percent are Orthodox Christians, 10 percent are
Protestants. More than 70 percent do not belong to any
church or have not declared their religious affiliation.
Languages in Estonia
The official language in Estonia is Estonian. It is
spoken by around 70 percent of the population. In
addition, Russian is still widespread, because around a
quarter of the population are Russian.
Estonian is closely related to Finnish. It belongs to
the Finno-Ugric languages. This makes it one of only a
few languages in Europe that do not count among the
Indo-European languages. However, there are many
loanwords from German in Estonian, because Germans lived
here for several centuries. These include, for example,
müts (hat) or würts (spice). You can also guess what
reisibüroo means. The many vowels are typical of
Estonian. Then there are also words like Jäääär!
Written is Estonian (which we also write) in Latin
characters. There are also a few additional letters that
we do not know: š, ž, ü, ä, ö and õ. There is no z.
Words are almost always stressed on the first syllable.
An exception is aitäh - that means thank you.
Religions in Estonia