Definition of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the name given to the eastern part of Europe that is
adjacent to Central Europe. A more specific definition of the term Eastern
Europe depends on the context in which this term is used:
- In a geographical sense, Eastern Europe includes Ukraine, the European
part of Russia, Belarus (Belarus) and sometimes Moldova (Moldova). However,
a large part of Eastern Europe is north of Central Europe, cities such as
Saint Petersburg, Novgorod and Murmansk are further north than many
Scandinavian cities. Northwest Russia was mostly included in Northern Europe
until the middle of the 19th century. The most geographically correct term
for this area is Northeastern Europe. The defining form of the landscape in
Eastern Europe is the huge Eastern European plain, which includes extends to
the Ural Mountains and Ural River, which separate Eastern Europe from Asia,
and meets the icy Arctic Ocean in the north.
- In the historical sense, Eastern Europe refers to Ukraine, the European
part of Russia, Belarus and Moldova. The Caucasian countries Georgia,
Armenia and, to a certain extent, Azerbaijan are also often seen as part of
Eastern Europe. The Eastern European countries are historically and
culturally largely shaped by the Orthodox Church (with the exception of
Islamic Azerbaijan) and - in contrast to the Ottoman-ruled Balkans - were
under the rule of the Russian Empire. The countries of Eastern Europe had no
or only a limited share in the social developments of the Renaissance,
Reformation and Enlightenment.
- In the ethnic, linguistic and cultural sense, Eastern Europe refers to
the part of Europe inhabited by the Slavic peoples. However, this simplified
classification is criticized by some, since the eastern part of Germany was
also settled by Slavs for a long time (and in some cases it is still Sorbs
today). Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia as
non-Slavic countries would (also) not be assigned to the Eastern European
area in this case.
- In a political sense, Eastern Europe referred to the European Eastern
Bloc states during the Cold War. Eastern Europe is the name given to the
eastern part of Europe that is adjacent to Central Europe. A more specific
definition of the term Eastern Europe depends on the context in which this
term is used:
- The Eastern European and Central Eastern European countries are often
considered together for political reasons. In EU jargon, the abbreviation
for this is CEEC.
- In the statistical sense of the United Nations, Eastern Europe includes:
Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Hungary, Poland, the
Czech Republic, Belarus.
- In the linguistic and geographical sense of the United Nations, the
Department for Eastern Europe, North and Central Asia comprises the
following countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia,
Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Belarus.
Countries in Eastern Europe