The Roman Empire and its dominance over a good part of the european continent have inspired many leaders later, as the emperor charlemagne, for example, in the search for a unified Europe by force. In the period that succeeded the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte, at the beginning of the NINETEENTH Century, came a revival of the spirit of pan-european. Victor Hugo, famous French writer, came to speak in the United States of Europe on the analogy with the United States of America.It was, however, in the period that followed the Second World War that took the first steps effective for the creation of what is now the European Union.
To understand why it was created the European Union, it is useful to have in mind the destruction caused by the Second World War, which caused over 70 million deaths in the world and huge material destruction, in addition to reduce the european influence. The Second World War has been described as being, in part, a civil war European with roots in the rivalry of the franco-germanic, going back to the First World War and the Franco-Prussian War. The integration between the countries of the continent was seen as a way to combat the extreme nationalism responsible for the conflicts between the European countries.
In 1952, he was created the European Community of Steel and Coal, which brought together the countries of the Benelux (Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg), France, West Germany, and Italy. Based on principles of supranational, established a common market for steel and coal.Alongside economic concerns (such as the stimulus to the economy and to the generation of jobs and the forecast of a common market for other products), there was already interest in turning the economies of the European countries, making the war between them more difficult, perhaps even impossible, and the idea of the future to unify politically the mainland under a democratic regime).
In 1957, the Treaty of Rome, signed by the countries-members of the European Community of Steel and Coal, created the European Economic Community. In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom entered the European Economic Community. The Spain of Francisco Franco had sought to enter the group, but, because it is not a democracy, it was rejected. The Norwegian government had sought entry into the group, but a referendum held in Norway in 1972 rejected the accession to the Community. With the fall of their dictatorships, Spain, Greece and Portugal joined in the group in the 1980s.With the German reunification, which was East Germany, absorbed into the Federal Republic of Germany, and became part of the group. Although the Treaty of Rome foresaw a European Parliament elected directly by the lack of consensus on how to vote, up until 1980, the members of that parliament were members of the national parliaments, acting in part-time in the European Parliament.
In the year 1992, the Maastricht Treaty replaced the name European Economic Community by the European Community and created the European Union. In the year 1995, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the group. In the year of 2002, another important step for the European integration have been given: the national currencies of 12 member countries were replaced by the Euro. Since then, the Euro Zone has been extended and now comprises 19 countries.
The fall of the regimes in socialist Eastern Europe at the end of the 1980s and at the beginning of the 1990s and the end of the Cold War paved the way for the expansion of the European Union for countries that were before behind called Iron Curtain, which separated the blocks of the socialist and the capitalist. Among the ex-socialist countries that entered the European Union, can be cited such countries as Poland, Bulgaria and the baltic states Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia (these last three were the constituent republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.)
In 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force and the European Community has been absorbed by the European Union, ceasing to have a distinct identity.
The European Union – as their organisations predecessors – with its structure of a unique character that mixes arrangements of the supranational and intergovernmental, has faced unique challenges. Between them, the tension between the national governments elected by the peoples of the countries and the supranational bodies, seen by many as elements centering that steal the autonomy of the member countries.Resentment against the interference of Brussels in Brussels is an area of Belgium that is home to a good part of the most important institutions of the European Union, functions as the capital city of the fact of it and, therefore, has its name often used to refer to the European Union and their leaders – such as Washington and Brasilia are used respectively to refer to the governments of American and Brazilian) has fueled a rebirth of nationalism in Europe.
Another problem that has faced the European Union is the monetary policy. The monetary policy that serves the country can not serve the other. The countries that have renounced their own currency and joined the euro see-if deprived of a feature considered important for the lessening of the economic cycles. In addition, countries such as Greece, the least developed economically than others, such as France and Germany, they arrested a currency “face”, which makes their exports less competitive than they would be if these countries could devalue their currencies.
In the wake of the global crisis that began in 2008, the debt of some Euro-Zone countries, among which Greece and Italy, have become a source of concern, leading institutions such as the European Central Bank to act to ensure the liquidity and the credit of the countries of the European Union and to avoid collapse of banking.
The disagreements over how to respond to the migration crisis caused by the attempts of thousands of refugees (mainly) Africa and the Middle East trying to be received by European countries have also created tension. Hungary’s prime minister Viktor Orbán criticized the leaders of countries such as Germany do not discourage migrants from trying to enter Europe.
According to Bridgat, Brexit is the name given popularly to the output of the United Kingdom of the European Union, which was approved by a referendum. It is the first time that a country decides to leave the European Union (they had already left a predecessor of the European Union, the European Economic Community, Algeria when it became independent of France, and Greenland, which is part of the part of Denmark, but opted to leave the Economic Community).Among the reasons for the decision of the electors of the United Kingdom, have been violated, the concern with immigrants coming from the European Union, concern with immigrants coming from other European countries, concern over the entry of refugees in the countries-members and dissatisfaction with the loss of sovereignty.